Practice Exercises

Sandra Collins

The exercises provided here are linked directly from the various chapters. You will find them most useful if you complete them as you read each chapter. Feedback on the exercises is provided in the second half of this chapter. You may want to download the Microsoft Word version of the Practice Exercises to complete them more easily.

Note. Many of the exercises below focus on particular aspects of professional writing (e.g., grammar, organizing content with a paragraph, or attending to voice). The content is fictitious and I have not included citations, in most cases, that could distract from the purpose of the exercise. Remember, in an actual paper, citations are required for any content that is not your own original idea!

 

Chapter 1 exercises

Exercise 1: Finding your voice

Read the paragraph below and highlight examples where the use of the passive voice or the third person distracts from the clarity or transparency of meaning. Also note also any examples where I statements may not be appropriate.

Both formative and summative evaluation processes are important for ensuring that client needs are effectively addressed through the counselling process. Without a clear feedback loop, it is difficult for counsellors to assess how effective various aspects of the counselling process are. To address this concern, at the end of each session clients were invited to complete a brief feedback sheet, which contained the following information: (a) overall rating of the session; (b) specific rating of the working alliance, counsellor skills, progress towards goals, and sense of hope; and (c) a brief description of critical incidents in each session. I think that clients were pleased to be asked to provide this type of feedback. I reviewed the feedback on a client-by-client basis. Aggregate data for all clients was also produced. All clients identified clear links between counselling goals and processes as an important factor. A sense of connection to the counsellor and experiences in the sessions that connected thoughts and feelings were also identified. I felt affirmed in my work as a result of the feedback. Challenges were also presented. Based on this feedback, I have integrated a number of additional strategies into my work with most clients. Focused evaluation has an important role to play in counsellor self-awareness and professional development. In my opinion, the profession could benefit from developing new tools that are easy to implement and do not require a significant time commitment. There is also a need for existing tools to be made available to others.

Check out the Feedback on Exercise 1.

 

Exercise 2: Principles for reducing bias

Some general principles for reducing bias in language, summarized from the APA Manual, are provided in the table below. Generate two examples for each category: (a) one considered insensitive or reflecting bias and (b) an alternative reflecting professionalism and cultural sensitivity. A few cells have been filled in to get you started. Note: Move your cursor over the table to view different areas.

General Principles

Problematic Example

Preferred Example

  •  Be as specific as possible in your descriptions of cultural identities
North American Indians
  • Highlight differences in cultural identities only where relevant
  • Place the emphasis on the person to avoid labeling
three individuals experiencing depression
  • Use labels preferred by group members
  • Provide clear definitions for terms you introduce to label groups
  • Do not set up one individual or group as the comparative standard for describing others
50 men participated, with their wives
  • Structure sentences to highlight the individual as an active participant
  •  Select accurate pronouns to describe individuals or groups
  •  Do not use male pronouns as inclusive of all human beings
  •  Carefully distinguish behaviour from cultural identity
  •  Do not equate people with conditions they experience
There is a new wave of individuals from Vietnam seeking refugee status
  •  Avoid pejorative or emotionally laden terminology
  • Do not make assumptions about the relationship of person and condition
  • Avoid adjectives that suggest a descriptor is unusual for group members
The sensitive cowboy stood out
  • Fully and accurately describe members of groups

Feedback on Exercise 2.

 

Exercise 3: Using an appropriate tone

Read the paragraph below and highlight words that create an unprofessional or disrespectful tone. Suggest an alternative in each case.

In recent years, researchers have prioritized self-reflection in the training of health care practitioners. Oddly, none of these researchers has identified the need for reflexive practice constructs to be applied to those responsible for the education of nurses, counsellors, or other health care practitioners. They stated that modeling in the supervision process one is of the most effective ways to encourage self-awareness. However, most completely missed the connection to the role of educators. A few did a better job of pulling together the various elements of the training process. They focused in particular on techniques for building self-awareness through courses, applied practice experiences, and supervision of theses. What this writer does not understand is researchers’ lack of focus on the level of self-awareness and self-reflection by educators themselves.

Feedback on Exercise 3.

 

Exercise 4: Writing with academic integrity

Reread the final paragraphs from exercises 3 and 4 below. Insert a (***) to indicate the places where you would expect a citation or citations to be added to the text. Remember that any ideas that are drawn from the writing of others must be clearly cited to respect the principles of intellectual honesty.

Both formative and summative evaluation processes are important for ensuring that client needs are effectively addressed through the counselling process. Without a clear feedback loop, counsellors have difficulty assessing the effectiveness of various aspects of the counselling process. To address this concern, at the end of each session I invited clients to complete a brief feedback sheet, which contained the following information: (a) overall rating of the session; (b) specific rating of the working alliance, counsellor skills, progress towards goals, and sense of hope; and (c) a brief description of critical incidents in each session. Clients were pleased to be asked to provide this type of feedback. I reviewed the feedback on a client-by-client basis. I also produced aggregate data for all clients. All clients identified clear links between counselling goals and processes as an important factor. They also identified a sense of connection to the counsellor and experiences in the sessions that connected thoughts and feelings. I felt affirmed in my work as a result of the feedback. I also felt challenged. Based on this feedback, I have integrated a number of additional strategies into my work with most clients. Focused evaluation has an important role to play in counsellor self-awareness and professional development. The profession could benefit from developing new tools that are easy to implement and do not require a significant time commitment. Existing tools could also be made available to others.

In recent years, researchers have prioritized self-reflection in the training of health care practitioners. I believe that it is noteworthy that none of these researchers has identified the need for reflexive practice constructs to be applied to those responsible for the education of nurses, counsellors, or other health care practitioners. They stated that modeling in the supervision process one is of the most effective ways to encourage self-awareness. However, most did not extend their discussion to the role of educators. A few provided a more comprehensive review of the various elements of the training process. They focused in particular on techniques for building self-awareness through courses, applied practice experiences, and supervision of theses. Researchers’ lack of focus on the level of self-awareness and self-reflection by educators themselves leaves room for further exploration .

Feedback on Exercise 4.

 

Exercise 5: Paraphrasing and synthesizing

Take the quotes below and paraphrase each of them. Then, provide a summary statement that reflects your synthesis of these ideas. You don’t need to worry about citing sources at this point. We will address that in Chapter 4.

“Many non-dominant populations in Canada are more strongly influenced by the social determinants of health than dominant populations.”

“The social determinants of health include poverty, prejudice and discrimination, lack of access to clean water and adequate housing, and barriers to education and work.”

“Aboriginal populations in Canada face many obstacles to healthy development and to sustaining well-being that have more to do with the context of their lives than with their individual or collective choices, motivations, or life goals.”

“Health care practitioners are remiss if they focus only on the individual they encounter in their office or health care service setting. Instead, the locus of control should be shifted to the social, economic, and physical environments in which their patients live.”

Feedback on Exercise 5.

 

Chapter 2 exercises

Exercise 1: Establishing your purpose

Generate three different purpose statements for each level of learning, focusing on different ways to demonstrate meeting that objective. Pick one of the following topics areas: bullying in schools, online delivery of health/counselling services, or ethical dilemmas unique to rural practice.

Level of Learning

Criteria for Demonstration
of Learning

Purpose Statements

Cognitive Domain
Knowledge
  • observe and recall information
  • know major ideas
  • master subject matter
Comprehension
  • understand content and grasp meaning
  • interpret facts, compare, contrast
  • provide examples
Application
  • use information, methods, concepts, theories in new situations
  • solve problems using required skills or knowledge
Analysis
  • identify patterns and organization of parts
  • recognize hidden meanings or implications
Synthesis
  • use old ideas to create new ones or generalize to new situations
  • integrate knowledge from several areas
  • predict, draw conclusions
Evaluation
  • compare and discriminate between ideas or models
  • assess value of theories and concepts
  • make choices based on reasoned argument
  • recognize subjectivity

Note: There are no right answers to this exercise, because many different purposes statements could emerge from a single topic.

Return to Chapter 2.

 

Exercise 2: Crafting a thesis statement

In the table below, write one purpose statement for each of the levels of learning (see Exercise 1 for a reminder of what each level aims at). Then, create two potential thesis statements that fit well with that purpose. Try to make the thesis statements quite different from each other to demonstrate the amount of freedom you have in defining the specific direction of your paper even after the topic and purpose have been clearly established. Select from the following topics: developing graduate writing skills, entering graduate studies, or establishing professional identity. Remember, there are no right answers, so be creative. Notice that two levels of learning from the affective domain have been added. Remember: Move your cursor over the table to view different areas.

Level of Learning

Purpose Statements

Thesis Statement

Cognitive Domain 
Analysis
  • identify patterns and organization of parts
  • recognize hidden meanings or implications
Synthesis
  • use old ideas to create new ones or generalize to new situations
  • integrate knowledge from several areas
  • predict, draw conclusions
Evaluation
  • compare and discriminate between ideas or models
  • assess value of theories and concepts
  • make choices based on reasoned argument
  • recognize subjectivity
Affective Domain
Awareness
  • demonstrate self-awareness. sensitivity towards others, personal responsibility
  • identify areas for personal change
Commitment
  • adopt a self-reflective attitude toward personal and professional activities
  • exhibit values and attitudes appropriate to the context and professional role
  • seek personal and professional development

Note: There are again no right answers to this exercise. Assess your own work against the criteria provided in Chapter 2.

 

Exercise 3: Generating an argument

The purpose of this exercise is to practice developing clear key points (arguments) in an overall argument. Take each of the thesis statements below and generate a series of key points to support that thesis. Notice that on the topic of developing writing skills, it is possible to argue two very different positions. I deliberately set up two contradictory thesis statements to demonstrate that they must be arguable. Organize your key points according to a logical flow that persuades the reader that your thesis or argument is worth attending to.

Thesis statement 1: Developing solid writing skills early on will facilitate success in both graduate education and professional roles.

Thesis statement 2: The emphasis on writing skills in graduate programs distracts from the central mandate of developing applied professional competencies.

Return to Chapter 2.

 

Exercise 4: Synthesizing the literature

Using the topic, purpose, and thesis statements below, create three different sentences for each level of learning that demonstrate the criteria provided. Remember, you do not need to address all of the criteria in each statement. Only cognitive learning is targeted in this exercise because of the topics selected and because this is often the aspect of writing where students have the most difficulty distinguishing among and targeting specific levels of learning.

Topic

Purpose

Thesis

Nurse practitioner competencies In this paper, I will compare and contrast the nurse practitioner competencies with those of other health care providers. Nurse practitioners fill an important gap in health care services by bringing a unique combination of competencies that build upon those of registered nurses.

Level of Learning

Sample Statements – Synthesis of the literature

Knowledge

 

 

Comprehension

 

 

Application

 

 

Analysis

 

 

Synthesis

 

 

Evaluation

 

 

Return to Chapter 2.

 

Exercise 5: Crafting an introduction

Test your skills at building an effective introduction, drawing on the topic, purpose, and thesis statements below. Remember, you can be as creative as you like as long as the basics are clear and your creativity doesn’t impair the clarity of your writing.

Topic

Purpose

Thesis

Nurse practitioner competencies To compare and contrast the nurse practitioner competencies with those of other health care providers. Nurse practitioners fill an important gap in health care services by bringing a unique combination of competencies that build upon those of registered nurses.
Multicultural counselling and social justice To evaluate the relative position of multicultural counselling and social justice in the profession of counselling. Multicultural counselling and social justice are inextricably intertwined, and both are central to competent and ethical practice with all clients.

Return to Chapter 2.

 

Exercise 6: Drawing conclusions

Test your skills at building an effective conclusion, drawing on the two topic, purpose, and thesis sequences in Exercise 5. Be sure to use the introduction you crafted above as an additional reference point.

Return to Chapter 2.

 

Chapter 3 exercises

Exercise 1: Finding your voice

Review the paragraph below and identify examples where transition words are used in a way that either enhance (bold) or reduce (italics) the meaningfulness or flow of ideas in the paper. Remember that any writing tool that is overused has a counterproductive effect.

To illustrate the application of knowledge to practice in counselling skills training, Jerry (2006) set up an experiment in which one group of students was provided with basic skills training and then asked to provide a videotape and another group was provided with basic skills training and a more detailed rationale for each of the skills prior to producing their videotapes. Afterwards, all students were provided with a self-assessment measure of their skills. In addition, independent raters reviewed the videotapes using a standardized coding grid. They did not show any differences between the two groups. However, the self-assessments were significantly different. They revealed greater perceived skill on the part of students who received the more detailed rationale. In other words, the two measures clearly assessed different things. For that reason, Jerry concluded that further research was required to determine the relationship between perceived skills application and actual skill application. Nonetheless, he asserted that self-perception was not an adequate foundation upon which to design learning approaches. Consequently, no changes were made to the current skills training course.

Feedback on Exercise 1.

 

Exercise 2: Writing with clarity and conciseness

Read the paragraph below and bold the words or expressions that make the text less clear and concise. Suggest an alternative, where appropriate.

There are only a very few researchers who think that Western theories of health behaviour change can be applied equally well to all populations. Some theories have made adjustments to account for cultural difference. However, these are few and far between. There are a number of writers who have suggested that modifications to existing theories are insufficient. They point to studies that have previously demonstrated that the assumptions underlying Western theories are inconsistent with the worldviews of many of the clients/patients we might encounter. Other authors take more of a fly by the seat of your pants approach, adapting models to fit with each individual client/patient in the moment, even though they may not all agree with the basic theoretical position of the particular practitioner and drawing on both Western and Eastern models that speak effectively to one another. “Theories are only theories – they are not as important as our clients. The way that we practice and the theories we draw upon should be assessed in light of the needs of our clients. In this way, we meet our professional obligation to address the needs of all of our clients” (Brown, 2005, p. 45). If theories are applied appropriately then clients/patients are more likely to continue to access your services than simply applying theories in the same way with everyone.

Feedback on Exercise 2.

 

Exercise 3: Using structuring skills

Add a topic sentence (key point) to the beginning of each paragraph and then add appropriate structuring skills to improve the flow and clarity of meaning of the following text. Indicate your key points and title your structuring skills with bold font. You may also want to practice creating a thesis statement that might ties these points in the argument together.

Many authors recognize the importance of supporting the accumulation of knowledge with principles and processes for applying that knowledge in practice. Without ethical guidelines for application of health knowledge, practitioners lack the conceptual framework for case conceptualization and planning. Other authors point to the moral foundations of the health disciplines. Health care practice is about change and change implies the need for a conceptual framework for assessing the appropriateness of that change. Codes of ethics and ethical decision-making models provide practitioners with the tools required to balance the needs of the individual with the needs of society in setting change agendas. Finally, although it is the responsibility of the profession, and more specifically the licensing bodies, to ensure competence in ethical decision-making, many argue that they most appropriate starting place is pre-licensure professional education.

Some courses focus strictly on the principles and regulatory content of the codes of ethics. These courses engage students in applying those principles to various practice contexts and highlight the consequence to both the practitioner and client/patient of failures to behave in an ethical manner. Other courses engage students in a problem-solving process that forces them to identify tensions or discrepancies among various principles. A process for ethical decision-making is central to the curriculum and takes precedence over specific rules and regulations. There are also a few programs that view the person of the counsellor, nurse practitioners, or nurse rather than the external principles and processes as the key to ethical practice. In this case, the emphasis in the curriculum is on increasing self-awareness of biases, assumptions, personal moral standards, and so on.

Courses focused on rules and regulations are based on the assumption that ethical behaviour is governed by the degree of knowledge one possesses. Courses targeting ethical decision-making assume that ethical behaviour results from good judgment and that judgment is enhanced through problem-based learning. The third approach is based on the belief that knowledge and judgment are insufficient without virtue as a strength of one’s character and that character development is a central goal of graduate education.

Linking all of these approaches to learning together offers the potential for development of a more comprehensive model that addresses a number of types of cognitive and affective learning…

Feedback on Exercise 3.

 

Exercise 4: Components of a sentence

In the paragraph below, complete the following tasks:

  1. Identify the various components of each sentence by filling in the (____) after each word, drawing on the basic components of a sentence in Chapter 3.
  2. Then, highlight the sentences that are not complete, and rewrite the paragraph to make the necessary corrections.

Inside (____) his head, George (____) feels complete (____) panic. Panic stronger than anything he has ever felt (____). He is unsure now whether (____) he is more afraid of the spider or (____) of his own immobilized paws. He stares at (____) his paws, which (____) seem twice as (____) big as they (____) normally are, and (____) he stares at Ms. Spider (____), who is quietly inching towards him (____). He screams. His voice sounds like it is coming from a mouse. He is either (____) going to collapse on the spot or (____) he is going to stand his ground and face the spider (____) clan. Spiders, which often come inside to escape the cold (____), usually do not care about cats. George knows (____) this, but (____) it doesn’t really matter. The world suddenly goes black and George is no longer afraid. Afraid or (____) even aware of the spider (____) moving slowing up his front (____) paw, over his shoulder, and up onto the top of his head. When he (____) wakes up, he begins to purr vigorously (____). He (____) feels a light rubbing behind his ear. Someone has come (____) home and is petting him gently (____) to calm his nerves. Because (____) he is such a lucky cat! He doesn’t know, in this moment (____), that the spiders have found a new, warm place to snuggle in out of the cold.

Feedback on Exercise 4.

 

Exercise 5: Sentence structure

You have analyzed a number of issues related to sentence structure: subject-verb agreement, pronoun-noun agreement, and placement of modifiers. Review the paragraphs below to identify as many errors as you can. Then rewrite the paragraphs to address those issues.

Multicultural competence is a complex subject. The data from professional literature suggests that specific competencies may be required to work with specific groups, although it is not consistent. These competencies tend to be focused on specific types of interventions. It is less focused on the generic skills required. A set of authors were identified who we saw as discussing more generalizable competencies. Although we see them as key variables, none of their samples included gender or sexual orientation as components of cultural identity. In many cases, the subjects that were included only were identified by race. The applicability of the competencies to other non-dominant groups are unclear, identified by gender, sexual orientation, or ability. More importantly, the authors selected subjects without assessing other identity factors. As a result, we found it difficult to assess who the result might apply to. None of the studies was specific about the interaction of race with other identity factors.

In our study, participants self-identified by a number of cultural identity factors to address this problem. I found that the participants whom identified more than one factor also ranked the importance of various competencies differently than those who identified only one factor, from the list of knowledge, attitudes, and skills provided. Using a factor analysis, the data was analyzed to identify clusters of common competencies. Neither three male participants nor a female participant appear to have entered data about identify factors skewing the data. These participants were eliminated from the data set because of her/him providing incomplete responses.

Feedback on Exercise 5.

 

Exercise 6: Subordinate elements and parallel construction

Highlight the best option in the sentences below to ensure that the subordinate elements clearly indicate the appropriate relationship to the main clause and that elements of the sentence are constructed in parallel.

I am very concerned about grammar since / because it comes up often / professors observe it often in grading papers and students comment on it in course evaluations.

The most critical element of good writing that / which I will tackle in a later lesson is proofreading.

Proofreading is a skill that / which few people master.

While / Although I am not an expert in this area, I do have a few years of practice with my own writing.

While / Whereas I was writing this course, I was also working / also worked on several papers from my own research.

There are a number of tips for proofreading: (a) set the paper aside for a while, (b) reading / read it aloud, and (c) ask / asking a peer to edit it.

You may find you need to plan ahead, since / because additional time is required, to either implement either the first tip or last / the last one.

I find that some students have trouble planning enough time and a final edit becomes unlikely / they are unlikely to complete a final edit.

They not only lose marks not only on APA formatting but also on basic spelling and grammar.

While / Since writing this course, I have been careful to take a break between revisions, to re-read each lesson carefully, and have invited / to invite colleagues to review them.

Feedback on Exercise 6.

 

Exercise 7: To hyphenate or not to hyphenate?

Review the following sentences and insert a hyphen, where appropriate, in the examples provided. Do not refer to the APA Manual guidelines until after you complete the exercise.

Exercise 7 activities are designed to provide you with practice using hyphens.

If you carefully follow the stress reducing APA rules, you will likely increase your grade point average.

These rules reflect generally accepted practices gathered here and there over many years.

Hit and miss application of the rules may result in a poorly written paper.

Applying the rules carefully case by case will likely result in a higher quality paper.

While you may prefer to write ad lib, the end result of ad lib practices is often disappointment.

Hyphenation is a bit tricky because of the many do and don’t principles involved.

Anxious students may not respond well to anal retentive instructors, who belong to a rules oriented subculture.

Most of the time, however, what appears as ultravigilant to students reflects a macrolevel perspective on what is required for professional focused writing.

Pro APA instructors are not necessarily pro micromanagement.

Principle focused feedback is different from grading that is over zealous.

Self aware writers recognize that reflective practice principles are the foundation of all learning.

As they learn more about the principles of effective writing, they often re evaluate their earlier formed perspectives and rework and re form their views.

Most effective writers find that the key to success is to focus on superordinate principles rather than memorize case or context specific examples.

Feedback on exercise 7.

 

Exercise 8: Principles of punctuation

Read the text below and fill in the blanks provided with appropriate punctuation. There may be some places where no punctuation is required. Be sure to refer back to the Punctuation Summary Tables or APA Manual if you are unsure.

Stating things as clearly as you can (____) is one of the fundamentals of effective writing (____) noted in many writing resources. When you begin your graduate training (____) you may feel tempted to attest to your (____) academic prowess (____) by using long-winded sentences (____) adding in too many non-essential phrases or clauses (____) or stringing independent clauses together. You will be better able to resist these temptations by focusing on basic rules of grammar (____) including appropriate punctuation. There is one general rule of thumb (____) Keep it simple. A second rule of thumb is (____) to sacrifice creativity for specificity. Various types of writing fall at different points on the creativity (____) specificity continuum (____) Scientific writing (____) whether you like it or not (____) falls at the specificity end. Most things can be stated in simple (____) clear (____) and concise ways (____) they can also be presented metaphorically (____) or with words designed to entertain rather than to provide clarity.

The purpose of scientific writing, including graduate student papers, is to synthesize, analyze (____) and clearly articulate professional knowledge (____) This is very different from writing an award-winning novel (____) An Internet search for resources on creative writing will bear this out (____) The American Psychological Association (____) APA (____) provides guidance on scientific writing in psychology through the (____) Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (____) There are three principles that form a foundation for scientific writing (____) Focus on being clear, concise (____) and specific (____) Attend to the meaning of each sentence (____) and (____) Select specific structural and grammatical devices to enhance that meaning. You may want to pay particular attention to Chapter 2 (____) Writing Clearly and Concisely (____) and Chapter 3 (____) The Mechanics of Style (____) A dash (____) used selectively and precisely (____) adds meaning (____) however (____) a dash (____) thrown in willy-nilly (____) simply breaks up the flow. Your instructor     course TA will provide as much writing support as possible (____) however (____) your success is really up to you.

Feedback on Exercise 8.

 

Exercise 9: Word Format

Test your understanding of APA principles related to capitalization, abbreviations, italics, and numbers by identifying the errors in the following text.

Jerry and Strong (2012) conducted an experiment with graduate students from the division of applied psychology to assess the National Association of Health Research [NAHR] ethical decision-making model (EDMM). Students from both the Counselling and Health Studies centres were divided into two groups, control and experimental. The Experimental Group was given thirty minutes to explore the National Association of Health Research model. Both groups were then asked to review a critical incident scenario and respond to a series of likert scale items. The scale ranged from 1 (irrelevant) to 5 (highly relevant). Five factors related to decision-making emerged; only factor 4 (self-reflection) showed no significant differences between groups. In a 2nd article, “Testing ethical decision-making processes,” Jerry and Strong (2015) tested the same two groups with an Awareness of Self inventory and coined the term “self-in-ethics to explain the differences between the CG and the EG. (See table 4 for a summary of the results of these two experiments.) A cluster of items was identified as making up this factor. A priori exposure of students in Health Studies to the EDMM did not affect the self-in-ethics factor (eg., this factor remained consistent across the CG and EG).

Feedback on Exercise 9.

 

Chapter 4 exercises

Exercise 1: Citations

For each of reference list entry below, provide the corresponding in-text citation. Use the format (author, date). Do not refer to the author and date tables your first time through. The first time you cite a particular source, more information may be required than in later citations. If more information is not required, simply indicate “same” for the subsequent citation. I have not split the URLs or DOIs in these examples because the column widths will change depending on your e-reader or computer set up.

Reference1

Citation

Achenbach, K., & Arthur, N. (2015). Experiential learning: Bridging theory to practice in cultural competence. Teaching and Learning, 17, 39-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001100285003

First citation: ________________

Subsequent citations: ________________

American Association of Neuroscience Nurses. (2015). Guidelines for working with neurotrauma. Retrieved from http://www.aann.org/pubs/content/neuroguidelines.html

First citation: ________________

Subsequent citations: ________________

Paul, R. (2014, September 26). Where do I go with APA? [Msg 45]. Retrieved from http://groups.yahoo.com/ group/APAstruggles/message/45

First citation: ________________

Subsequent citations: ________________

Nesbit, R. J., Jr. (2011). A conceptual model for working with dysfunctional families. Journal of Marriage and Family Therapy, 25(4), 12-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.37.1

First citation: ________________

Subsequent citations: ________________

Egale Canada. (2013, October 21). Make your voice heard in the struggle against hatred! Retrieved from http://www.egale.ca/index.asp?lang= E&menu =38&item=157

First citation: ________________

Subsequent citations: ________________

Arthur, N. (2010, July). Students’ perceptions of meaningful learning experiences in developing relationship-centred caring. Paper presented at the Interamerican Congress of Nursing Education, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

First citation: ________________

Subsequent citations: ________________

Alden, L., Mothersill, K., Stefy, R., McIlwraith, R., Stenfberg, R., McMullen, L., et al. (2012). Priorities for professional training in the 21st century. Canadian Nurse Practitioner, 37, 223-228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-678.2002.tb1299.x

First citation: ________________

Subsequent citations: ________________

Tools for navigating APA. (2006). In S. Collins & D. McBride (Eds.), Surviving APA formatting (pp. 101-123). Calgary, AB: UCan Publish.

First citation: ________________

Subsequent citations: ________________

Hanson, R. W. (2014). Developing theoretical models through group consensus. Journal of Theoretical Analysis, 25, 45-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/sgd0011327

Hanson, Z. R. (2015). Working with immigrant and refugee families. Inter-cultural Issues in Health Care, 45, 465-496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1556327805.2010.481961

First citation: ________________

Subsequent citations: ________________

Canadian Race Relations Foundation. (n.d.). Facts about acknowledging and defining racism. Toronto, ON: Author.

First citation: ________________

Subsequent citations: ________________

Arthur, N., & Collins, S. (Eds.). (2016). Culture-infused counselling: Fostering Socially Just Change Processes. Calgary, AB: Counselling Concepts.

 

First citation: ________________

Subsequent citations: ________________

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Cautionary statement for forensic use of DSM-5. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.744053

First citation: ________________

Subsequent citations: ________________

Collins, S., Arthur, N., & Wong-Wylie (2016). Enhancing reflective practice in health care practice through cultural auditing. Manuscript submitted for publication.

First citation: ________________

Subsequent citations: ________________

Canadian Task Force on Mental Health Issues Affecting Refugees from War Zones. (2016). After the door has been opened: Mental health issues affecting Syrian and Iraqi refugees in Canada. Ottawa, ON: Multiculturalism and Citizenship Canada.

First citation: ________________

Subsequent citations:  ________________

Porter, J. M., & Francis, L. (2013). Building community in Canada’s northland (S. Wiley, Ed.). Toronto, ON: Brooks Books.

First citation: ________________

Subsequent citations: ________________

Strong, A., Branfort, T., & Spath, L. (in press). There is nowhere to go but up: Hope for healing. Journal of Change Processes, 45, 555-565. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14754835.2014.92343754.x

First citation: ________________

Subsequent citations:  ________________

Where have all the theorists gone? (2014, July). Thinking Critically Monthly, 3, 2-3. Retrieved from http://www.thinkingcritically.org/journal.html

First citation: ________________

Subsequent citations:  ________________

Alverez, A. N., & Miville, M. L. (2013). Walking a tightrope: Strategies for teaching undergraduate cultural competence courses. In D. B. Pope-Davis, H. L. K. Coleman, W. M. Lui, & R. L. Toporek (Eds.), Handbook of cultural compe­tence in mental health care (pp. 528-545). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

 

First citation: ________________

Subsequent citations:  ________________

Payne, K. (2016, January). There is a way out: Building collaboration for international stability. Journal of International Relations, 25-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/tep000001170

First citation: ________________

Subsequent citations:  ________________

The dictionary of underused words. (2015). Lethbridge, AB: Wordsmith.

First citation: ________________

Subsequent citations:  ________________

Pedersen, P. (2011a). Counseling international students. The Counseling Psychologist, 19, 10-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.156-668.2010.tb01.x

Pedersen, P. (2011b). Multiculturalism as a generic approach to counseling. Journal of Counseling & Development, 70, 6-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6678.2007.tb009.x

First citation: ________________

Subsequent citations: ________________

Anonymous. (2015). What’s in a name anyway? Retrieved from http://www.criticalsocialwork.com/ CSW_V2_N2_WILL.pdf

First citation: ________________

Subsequent citations: ________________

Collison, B. B., Osbourne, J. L., Gray, L. A., House, R. M., Firth, J., & Lou, M. (2008). Preparing health services workers for social action. In C. C. Lee & G. R. Walz (Eds.), Social action: A mandate for health care (pp. 263- 277). Alexandria, VA: American Association for Community-Based Medicine.

First citation: ________________

Subsequent citations: ________________

Simpson, L., Paget, S., & Ellephson, R. (2013). Dreaming of an outcome. Evaluation, 34, 34-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-tb00440.x

Simpson, L., Rogers, R., & Fife, D. (2003). Thinking differently about building theory. Theoretical Analysis, 56(4), 23-35. Retrieved from http://www.criticalpublications.ca/journals/theo_anal.html

First citation: ________________

Subsequent citations: ________________

1 The references have been fabricated or adapted for the purposes of this exercise.

Feedback on Exercise 1.

 

Exercise 2: Quotations

There are 10 APA errors related to the quotations in the following text. Highlight each one as you identify it so that you can compare your responses with the corrected version.

Several writers have identified the source of ethnocentric thinking as a function of moral development (Green, 2013; Marks & Spencer, 2011; Stevens, 2016). One of the most interesting arguments is provided by Green: “the belief that my own perspective is more right than that of others is ironically evidence that my morale evolution is impaired (2013, p.35)”. This argument is based on the supposition that higher order moral functioning is evidenced by an ability to hold multiple perspectives simultaneously (Green, 2013; Stevens, 2016). However,

“The difficulty with this reasoning arises when one recognizing that the majority of humanity has difficulty with complex cognitive processing of multiple “truths” simultaneously. In fact, most people are quite comfortable with the belief that their way is the only way to view many complex social, economic, and cultural issues” (Stevens, 2016, p. 65).

In summary, ethnocentric thinking is hard to identify from the inside out, without specific practices to support critical reflection and self-awareness.

Feedback on Exercise 2.

 

Exercise 3: Integrating multiple and repeated sources

Identify as many errors as you can in the paragraphs below. Then rewrite the paragraph to correct those errors.

Nurse practitioners are fulfilling an important gap in the Canadian health care system (George & Remington, 2015, Boon, 2011, Willson, Williams, & Ward, 2013). This gap has evolved over time as the roles of nurses have become more narrow (Boon; George & Remington), their responsibilities more restricted (Willson, Williams, & Ward, 2013), and the overall demands on the health care systems heavier (Carver, 2011; Willson et al.). Boon, 2011, argues that nurse practitioners are well poised to fill this emerging service gap; in fact, they have been increasingly doing so over the past decade (Boon, 2011: George and Remington, 2015). My survey of the literature suggests that Boon is correct; however, changing how the rest of the medical system views nursing practice remains a challenge (Nyles, Andrews, and Devogne, 2010; Stewart, 2013; Stewart, 2015).

Nyles, et al. (2010) point to resistance on the part of physicians to give up control over certain procedures, even though these are well within the training and expertise of nurse practitioners. Stewart (2015) notes the expanded scope of practice that includes diagnosis and prescription of medications. According to Stewart, as well as Nyles and colleagues, those patients with access to primary health care through a nurse practitioner showed higher rates of both compliance and satisfaction with health interventions. Patients seem less resistant to change than physicians (Nyles et al.; Stewart, 2013; Robertson, Moore, and Jeffrey, 2014). Robertson & colleagues asserted that the tide is turning as a critical mass of nurse practitioners join the health care team (also check out Anderson, 2013 or Johnson, 2016).

Feedback on Exercise 3.

 

Exercise 4: Referencing periodicals

The purpose of this exercise is to provide you with practice correctly referencing periodicals. Using the following example of a journal article and following the criteria provided in column 1, rewrite the reference in column 2. Do not worry about the hanging indent or spacing. An example is provided in the first row.

Smith, D. C., & Maher, M. F. (2015). Healthy death. Counseling & Values, 36(1), 142-148.

Link

Reference

  • The issue does not begin on page 1
  • There is another author: R. Rusino
Smith, D. C., Maher, M. F., & Rusino (2015). Healthy death. Counseling & Values, 36, 142-148.
  • There is no author
  • A subtitle is added = views from the west
  • This is a letter to the editor
  • Author = Bereavement Office, Calgary Health Services
  • Periodical = Chicago Times newspaper
  • Published on January 24, Section A, pages 3 and 9
  • Periodical = Weekly Psychology Magazine
  • Published on February 7
  • Periodical = Newsletter
  • Published monthly = December
  • There is no volume number (or issue number)
  • Journal published in July
  • The journal lists volume = XXI and Issue = iv
  • This is a book review: Book = The Path to Death.
  • There is no author
  • Newsletter = Edmonton Hospital News
  • Address = Hospital Centre, 45 Jasper Ave. Edmonton, AB, T4R 8T9
  • Smith and Maher = editors
  • Whole special issue is referenced
  • DOI = 10.1177/0011000009338495
  • No doi is available for this article
  • Publisher URL = http://www.cppub.org/cvjournal.html

Feedback on Exercise 4.

 

Exercise 5: Referencing books

The purpose of this exercise is to provide you with practice correctly referencing books.

Using the following example of a book reference, and following the criteria provided in column 1, rewrite the reference in column 2. Do not worry about the hanging indent or spacing. An example is provided in the first row.

Sanderson, C. A. (2014). Health psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Criteria

New Reference

  • Authors are added: J. Smith, R. Hayes, M. Wiley, Z. Spath, W. Tishel
Sanderson, C. A., Smith, J. Hayes, R. , Wiley, M., Spath, Z., & Tishel, W. (2014). Health psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
  • Publisher = University of British Columbia Press
  • Book accepted for publication but not yet published
  • Author = New Jersey Social Services
  • Publisher = New Jersey Social Services
  • Author = The Centre for Innovative Justice
  • Report was published on July 21
  • Report number = SZTN 3902
  • Author = Division of Applied Psychology, University of Calgary
  • There is no date.
  • Authors are added: J. Smith, R. Hayes, M. Wiley, Z. Spath, W. Tishel, M. Mishra, T. Justin
  • Publisher = Way Out Inc.
  • Publisher = Back Corner Office, Ontario Ministry of Health
  • Location = Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • Sanderson is listed as editor, not author
  • Second editor = R. Wilson
  • This the second edition
  • There is no author
  • This is a manual
  • DOI = 10.1177/0011000003260065
  • You read a print version of the book
  • You downloaded the book onto your Kindle
  • No DOI
  • Publisher URL = www.healthbooks.ca
  • The report has no report number
  • It is available through ERIC at document number: KSM234

Feedback on Exercise 5.

 

Exercise 6: Referencing book chapters

Use the following book chapter reference to complete this exercise.

Kabat-Zinn, J. (2013). Mindfulness meditation. In D. Goleman & J. Gurin (Eds.), Mind-body medicine (pp. 259-275). Yonkers, NY: Consumer Reports Books.

Criteria

New Reference

  • Authors are added: J. Smith, R. Hayes
  • A subtitle is added = health benefits of an ancient buddhist practice
  • No author is provided for the chapter
  • This is the second edition of the book
  • The author = Life management strategies group
  • Kabat-Zinn uses the suffix Junior
  • Second author Kabat-Zinn, K.
  • There are three locations listed for Consumer Report Books: Washington, DC; Toronto, ON, and Athabasca, AB (in that order)
  • The book is published in New York city
  • DOI = 10.1186/1471-2458-6-104
  • There is an additional editor = R. Gomery
  • The chapter is listed as authored anonymously
  • There are no editors for the book
  • The book is published in San Jose, Costa Rica
  • The third volume of the book is used, entitled: Strategies for change
  • Location = Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • The book is currently in production
  • The publisher URL = www.hotbooks.com.
  • You purchased the book.
  • The book was published in 1996
  • The chapter is available only as an archive in the Eric database

Feedback on Exercise 6.

 

Exercise 7: Referencing Internet periodicals and other documents

The purpose of this exercise is to provide you with practice correctly referencing materials from the Internet, in particular, periodicals. University library resources require a password, so I have not used them here. Click on the link provided in column 1. This will take you to an online document. Based on the information provided, create the appropriate reference notation in column 2. Do not worry about indenting or double-spacing your reference.

Link

Reference

https://www.apa.org/about/gr/issues/lgbt/marriage-equality.pdf                  
http://cjcdonline.ca/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Career-Practitioners%CA%BC-Views-of.pdf
http://cde.athabascau.ca/online_book/

http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1502824

Assume you can access the full article.

http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/niqab-ruling-federal-court-government-challenge-citizenship-ceremonies-1.3229206
http://www.uoguelph.ca/tss/id/currdev/Tri-university%20graduate%20attributes.pdf
http://www.wellesleyinstitute.com/publications/first-peoples-second-class-treatment/

Feedback on Exercise 7.

 

Chapter 5 exercises

Exercise 1: Creating and formatting headings

Return to the argument you drafted for Chapter 2 Exercise 3. Choose one of the following thesis statements and the arguments you generated. Then, create appropriate headings to structure your paper around these arguments.

Thesis statement 1: Developing solid writing skills early on will facilitate success in both graduate education and professional roles.

Thesis statement 2: The emphasis on writing skills in graduate programs distracts from the central mandate of developing applied professional competencies.

A sample is provided for each thesis statement in the Exercise 1 Feedback.

 

Exercise 2: Formatting your Word document

You will now begin to format your arguments from Chapter 2 Exercise 3 and the headings you generated in Exercise 1 above into a paper.

  1. Insert your headings into a separate Word document. Place your arguments on the first line of the paragraph. You don’t need to write the whole paper, just insert xxxxxxxxxxxxx to indicate additional text, as I have done in Chapter 5 Figure 5.1.
  2. Follow the steps in formatting your document from Chapter 5. Review the technical tips to ensure you are using the most efficient methods to format your paper.
  3. Double check that margins, font, and line spacing are all correct.

Keep your word document handy so you can continue to add various components in the following exercises.

Return to Chapter 5.

 

Exercise 3: Creating a title page

Continue to format the paper you began to craft in Exercises 1 and 2 above.

  1. Generate a title for your paper.
  2. Create a running head and make up the additional information required to complete the title page. Ensure that the running head is properly formatted for both the first and subsequent pages in the document.
  3. Repeat your title on the page 2 of the document to start off your paper.

Refer to Chapter 5 Figure 5.2 to double check your formatting.

 

Exercise 4: Formatting the body the paper

Continue to work with your evolving paper from the exercises above.

  1. Format the body of the paper using the guidelines provided in Chapter 5.
  2. Craft an introduction, drawing on your learning in Chapter 2. Insert the thesis statement into the introduction.
  3. Practice inserting a block quote within one of the paragraphs in your paper.
  4. In another paragraph, insert a list using bullets (for non-sequential points) and numbers (for sequential points).
  5. In a third paragraph, insert one sentence with seriation within the text of the sentence.
  6. Craft a conclusion, again drawing on your learning from Chapter 2. Remember to rework your thesis statement to pull together your arguments.
  7. Double check the formatting of your paper to ensure you have met all of the format criteria.

Return to Chapter 5.

 

Exercise 5: Ordering reference list entries

The purpose of this exercise is to provide you with practice correctly ordering your reference list. Please place the entries below in the correct order. Add notations where necessary to differentiate entries. The entries below are based on actual documents, but they have been altered for demonstration purposes. Note, the spacing and hanging indent are incorrect due to e-book format limitations.

Allison, K., Echemendia, R., Crawford, I., & Robinson, W. (2016). Predicting cultural competence: Implications for practice and training. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 27(4), 386-393. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2005.068007

Amundson, N., Westwood, M., & Prefontaine, R. (2015). Cultural bridging and employment counselling with clients from different cul­tural backgrounds. Canadian Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 29(3), 206-213. Retrieved from http://cjc-rcc.ucalgary.ca/cjc/

Ancis, J. R. (2010, Spring). Cultural competency training at a distance: Challenges and strategies. Journal of Counseling and Development, 76, 134-142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15538605.2013.755444

The Advanced Learning Environment. (n.d.). Home page. Retrieved from http://www.advancedlearningenvironment.org/lms/portal/desktopdefault.aspx

Arthur, A., & Bradford, D. (2012, April). Focusing on the basics of counsellor education. Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the American Education and Research Association, New Orleans, LA.

Bowman, S. L., & King, K. D. (2013). Gender, feminism, and multicultural competencies. In D. B. Pope-Davis, H. L. K. Coleman, W. M. Lui, & R. L. Toporek (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural competencies in counseling and psychology (pp. 59-71). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Arredondo, P., Toporek, R., Brown, S. P., Jones, J., Locke, D., Sanchez, J., & Stadler, H. (1996). Operationalization of the multicultural counseling competencies. Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, 24(1), 42-78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0086871

Ancis, J. R. (2013). Teaching multicultural competencies using the Internet and other technologies. In D. B. Pope-Davis, H. L. K. Coleman, W. M. Liu, & R. Toporek (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural competencies in counseling and psychol­ogy (pp. 575-587). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Arthur, N. (2014). Counsellor education for diversity: Where do we go from here? Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy, 32(1), 88-103. Retrieved from http://cjc-rcc.ucalgary.ca/cjc/

Allison, K., Crawford, I., Echemendia, R., Robinson, L., & Knepp, D. (2014). Human diversity and professional competence: Training in clinical and counseling psychology revisited. American Psychologist, 49(9), 792-796. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.49.9.792

Bowman, M. L. (2010). The diversity of diversity: Canadian-American differences and their implications for clinical training and APA accreditation. Canadian Psychology, 41(4), 230-243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0086871

Amber, R. (in press). Variations on tribal customs in Southeast Asia. Journal of International Cultural Experiences.

Arredondo, P., & Toporek, R. (2014), Multicultural competencies = ethical practice. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 26(1), 44-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011000003260065

Amundson, N. (2016). Active engagement: Enhancing the career counselling process. Richmond, BC: Ergon Communications.

Arthur, N. (2014). Intergenerational conflict in career and life planning. NATCON Papers, 24, 95-104). Retrieved from http://www.natcon.org/natcon/papers/natcon_papers_1998_e9.pdf

Amber, R. (in press). Tribal customs health implications. Journal of International Cultural Experiences.

Check out the Exercise 5 Feedback.

 

Exercise 6: Formatting your reference list

Continue to build your paper by adding the references you created in Exercise 5 to the sample paper you developed in Exercises 1 to 5.

  • Insert your correctly ordered reference list from Exercise 5.
  • Review the overall guidelines for formatting your paper to ensure you have met all of the APA criteria.
  • Format your references using the guidelines provided in Chapter 5.
  • Check your format against the Figure 5.7 sample paper.

Return to Chapter 5.

 

Feedback on practice exercises

NOTE: Many of the exercises below focus on particular aspects of professional writing (e.g., grammar, organizing content with a paragraph, or attending to voice). The content is fictitious and I have not included citations, in most cases, that could distract from the purpose of the exercise. Remember, in an actual paper, citations are required for any content that is not your own original idea!

 

Chapter 1 exercise feedback

Feedback on exercise 1: Finding your voice

Examples of inappropriate use of the passive voice or third person are bolded in the paragraph below. The paragraph is then rewritten in the active voice and using the first person, where appropriate.

Both formative and summative evaluation processes are important for ensuring that client needs are effectively addressed through the counselling process. Without a clear feedback loop, it is difficult for counsellors to assess how effective various aspects of the counselling process are. To address this concern, at the end of each session clients were invited to complete a brief feedback sheet, which contained the following information: (a) overall rating of the session; (b) specific rating of the working alliance, counsellor skills, progress towards goals, and sense of hope; and (c) a brief description of critical incidents in each session. I think that clients were pleased to be asked to provide this type of feedback. I reviewed the feedback on a client-by-client basis. Aggregate data for all clients was also produced. All clients identified clear links between counselling goals and processes as an important factor. A sense of connection to the counsellor and experiences in the sessions that connected thoughts and feelings were also identified. I felt affirmed in my work as a result of the feedback. Challenges were also presented. Based on this feedback, I have integrated a number of additional strategies into my work with most clients. Focused evaluation has an important role to play in counsellor self-awareness and professional development. In my opinion, the profession could benefit from developing new tools that are easy to implement and do not require a significant time commitment. There is also a need for existing tools to be made available to others.

Both formative and summative evaluation processes are important for ensuring that client needs are effectively addressed through the counselling process. Without a clear feedback loop, counsellors have difficulty assessing the effectiveness of various aspects of the counselling process. To address this concern, at the end of each session I invited clients to complete a brief feedback sheet, which contained the following information: (a) overall rating of the session; (b) specific rating of the working alliance, counsellor skills, progress towards goals, and sense of hope; and (c) a brief description of critical incidents in each session. Clients were pleased to be asked to provide this type of feedback. I reviewed the feedback on a client-by-client basis. I also produced aggregate data for all clients. All clients identified clear links between counselling goals and processes as an important factor. They also identified a sense of connection to the counsellor and experiences in the sessions that connected thoughts and feelings. I felt affirmed in my work as a result of the feedback. I also felt challenged. [OR: The clients also presented me with challenges.] Based on this feedback, I have integrated a number of additional strategies into my work with most clients. Focused evaluation has an important role to play in counsellor self-awareness and professional development. The profession could benefit from developing new tools that are easy to implement and do not require a significant time commitment. Existing tools could also be made available to others.

 Return to Chapter 1.

 

Feedback on exercise 2: Principles for reducing bias

Based on the general principles for reducing bias in language, two examples, below are (a) one considered insensitive or reflecting bias and (b) an alternative reflecting professionalism and cultural sensitivity. Scroll your cursor over the table to see all rows.

General Principles

Problematic Example

Preferred Example

  •  Be as specific as possible in your descriptions of cultural identities
North American Indians Western Canadian First Nations peoples
  • Highlight differences in cultural identities only where relevant
The instructor, who is gay, gave me only 3/10 on APA style The instructor gave me only 3/10 on APA style
  • Place the emphasis on the person to avoid labeling
three depressives three individuals experiencing depression
  • Use labels preferred by group members
homosexuals Lesbians and gay males
  • Provide clear definitions for terms you introduce to label groups
chronic over-exercisers individuals who exercise more than 40 hours per week
  • Do not set up one individual or group as the comparative standard for describing others
50 men participated, with their wives 50 heterosexual couples participated
  • Structure sentences to highlight the individual as an active participant
Five subjects were selected for each group Five male students volunteered for each group
  •  Select accurate pronouns to describe individuals or groups
It is important for a writer to express his opinion accurately It is important for writers to express opinions accurately
  •  Do not use male pronouns as inclusive of all human beings
We might once again put a man on the moon Human beings might once again walk on the moon
  •  Carefully distinguish behaviour from cultural identity
the chronologically challenged individuals who behave as if they are younger than they are
  •  Do not equate people with conditions they experience
There is a new wave of boat people There is a new wave of individuals from Vietnam seeking refugee status
  •  Avoid pejorative or emotionally laden terminology
The room was full of butch women The room was full of women representing various trades
  • Do not make assumptions about the relationship of person and condition
She struggled with expressive aphasia She had experienced episodes of expressive aphasia
  • Avoid adjectives that suggest a descriptor is unusual for group members
The sensitive cowboy stood out The cowboy who noticed my distress stood out
  • Fully and accurately describe members of groups
 Thirty students participated Thirty students participated (all were Asian immigrants, 10 urban; 20 rural)

Return to Chapter 1.

 

Feedback on exercise 3: Using an appropriate tone

The words highlighted below create an unprofessional or disrespectful tone. The paragraph is rewritten to suggest an alternative in each case.

In recent years, researchers have prioritized self-reflection in the training of health care practitioners. Oddly, none of these researchers has identified the need for reflexive practice constructs to be applied to those responsible for the education of nurses, counsellors, or other health care practitioners. They stated that modeling in the supervision process one is of the most effective ways to encourage self-awareness. However, they completely missed the connection to the role of educators. A few did a better job of pulling together the various elements of the training process. They focused in particular on techniques for building self-awareness through courses, applied practice experiences, and supervision of theses. What this writer doesn’t understand is the lack of focus on the level of self-awareness and self-reflection by educators themselves.

In recent years, researchers have prioritized self-reflection in the training of health care practitioners. I believe that it is noteworthy that none of these researchers has identified the need for reflexive practice constructs to be applied to those responsible for the education of nurses, counsellors, or other health care practitioners. They stated that modeling in the supervision process one is of the most effective ways to encourage self-awareness. However, most did not extend their discussion to the role of educators. A few provided a more comprehensive review of the various elements of the training process. They focused in particular on techniques for building self-awareness through courses, applied practice experiences, and supervision of theses. Researchers’ lack of focus on the level of self-awareness and self-reflection by educators themselves leaves room for further exploration.

 Return to Chapter 1.

 

Feedback on exercise 4: Writing with academic integrity

ch1 - Feedback on exercise 4: Writing with academic integrity

Return to Chapter 1.

 

Feedback on exercise 5: Paraphrasing and synthesizing

The paragraph below reflects a paraphrasing and synthesis of the ideas provided in the quotations. Notice how I have used my own words to pull this content together and have synthesized and integrated the ideas from these various sources. Notice how I have provided my own conclusion (summary) in the final sentence.

There is an emergent recognition of the importance of social determinants of health. Socioeconomic status, access to social and educational opportunities, services, and resources, and cultural oppression based on non-dominant positioning within society all contribute to the disadvantaging of some groups over others. Aboriginal peoples, for example, may strive to better their lives and advance their well-being, but they are often blocked by these external, systemic factors. It is important for health care practitioners to attend to these systemic influences (both positive and negative) in assessing the nature of their patient’s presenting concern and in determining how to approach health care intervention. Applying a social determinants of health lens both facilitates effective health care and avoids blaming the patient for problems at the broader social, economic, or political levels.

Return to Chapter 1.

 

Chapter 3 exercise feedback

Feedback on exercise 1: Finding your voice

ch3 - Feedback on exercise 1: Finding your voice

Return to Chapter 3.

 

Feedback on exercise 2: Writing with clarity and conciseness

I have bolded problematic words or phrases below and provided a brief explanation. I have then rewritten the paragraph to communicate the ideas with more clarity, precision, and conciseness.

ch3 - Feedback on exercise 2: Writing with clarity and conciseness

Revised paragraph:

Few researchers think that Western theories of health behaviour change can be applied equally well to all populations. Some theories have been adjusted to account for cultural difference. However, these modifications are rare. A number of writers have suggested that modifications to existing theories are insufficient. They point to studies that have demonstrated that the assumptions underlying Western theories are inconsistent with the worldviews of many clients/patients. Other authors take a flexible approach, adapting models to fit with each client/patient in the moment, even though the changes may not fit with the basic theoretical position of the practitioner. These authors draw on both Western and Eastern models that reflect similar assumptions. As health care practitioners, we have a responsibility to ensure that all clients/patients are well served through our theories and practices. Clients/patients are more likely to continue health interventions if theories are applied appropriately, rather than applied in the same way with everyone.

As a result of these changes, this paragraph has been reduced from 220 to 154 words. As you read through the paragraph again, you will likely find other ways to improve the flow of ideas. Addressing these specific issues is just a starting place.

Return to Chapter 3.

 

Feedback on exercise 3: Using structuring skills

The statements in bold are examples of key points for each paragraph as well as the types of structuring skills that you can use to make your paper flow more logically. Re-read the text below to see if you are better able to pick out the logical links between the paragraphs.

It is only in the last two decades that graduate programs have begun to introduce a specific course related to professional ethics. The rationale for including an ethics course, the nature of those courses, and the relationship of course structure and content to educational philosophies, however, differs across graduate programs [Overview].

There are three main arguments presented in the literature for including an ethics course in graduate education programs [Key point]. Many authors recognize the importance of supporting the accumulation of knowledge with principles and processes for applying that knowledge in practice. Without ethical guidelines for application of health knowledge, practitioners lack the conceptual framework for case conceptualization and planning. Other authors point to the moral foundations of the health disciplines. Health care practice is about change and change implies the need for a conceptual framework for assessing the appropriateness of that change. Codes of ethics and ethical decision-making models provide practitioners with the tools required to balance the needs of the individual with the needs of society in setting change agendas. Finally, although it is the responsibility of the profession, and more specifically the licensing bodies, to ensure competence in ethical decision-making, many argue that they most appropriate starting place is pre-licensure professional education. Regardless of the rationale provided, there is general agreement that every graduate program should include a specific ethics course [Summary]. There is more disagreement, however, about the specific content of that course [Transition].

Course content and the learning processes differ dramatically from one graduate program to the next, as noted in the following examples [Key point]. Some courses focus strictly on the principles and regulatory content of the codes of ethics. These courses engage students in applying those principles to various practice contexts and highlight the consequence to both the practitioner and client/patient of failures to behave in an ethical manner. Other courses engage students in a problem-solving process that forces them to identify tensions or discrepancies among various principles. A process for ethical decision-making is central to the curriculum and takes precedence over specific rules and regulations. There are also a few programs that view the person of the health practitioner rather than the external principles and processes as the key to ethical practice. In this case, the emphasis in the curriculum is on increasing self-awareness of biases, assumptions, personal moral standards, and so on. The nature of the content and learning processes reflect the underlying assumptions of the programs [Transition].

The examples provided are based on three different assumptions about graduate education [Key point]. Courses focused on rules and regulations are based on the assumption that ethical behaviour is governed by the degree of knowledge one possesses. Courses targeting ethical decision-making assume that ethical behaviour results from good judgment and that judgment is enhanced through problem-based learning. The third approach is based on the belief that knowledge and judgment are insufficient without virtue as a strength of one’s character and that character development is a central goal of graduate education. These three approaches to graduate training offer particular lenses for viewing the process of developing ethical competence. They each provide insights into the mechanisms that may underlie the learning process [Summary – this time of two related paragraphs]. The question is: Are these approaches mutually exclusive [Transition]?

This next section will propose a model for integrating each of these approaches into a comprehensive learning process [Overview]. Linking all of these approaches to learning together offers the potential for development of a more comprehensive model that addresses a number of types of cognitive and affective learning…

The sandwich technique

To see the effectiveness of structuring skills in enhancing meaningfulness and flow of your paragraphs, I have excerpted only those elements below. You will notice that the basic argument presented is clear when you read them without the sub-points in each paragraph.

It is only in the last two decades that graduate programs have begun to introduce a specific course related to professional ethics. The rationale for including an ethics course, the nature of those courses, and the relationship of course structure and content to educational philosophies, however, differs across graduate programs.

There are three main arguments presented in the literature for including an ethics course in graduate education programs. Regardless of the rationale provided, there is general agreement that every graduate program should include a specific ethics course. There is more disagreement, however, about the specific content of that course.

Both course content and the learning processes differ dramatically from one graduate program to the next, as noted in the following examples. The nature of the content and learning processes reflect the underlying assumptions of the programs.

The examples provided are based on three different assumptions about graduate education. These three approaches to graduate training offer particular lenses for viewing the process of developing ethical competence. They each provide insights into the mechanisms that may underlie the learning process. The question is: Are these approaches mutually exclusive?

This next section will propose a model for integrated each of these approaches into a comprehensive learning process…

Return to Chapter 3.

 

Feedback on exercise 4: Components of a sentence

The various components of sentences are indicated in bold.

Inside (preposition) his head, George (noun) feels complete (adjective) panic. Panic stronger than anything he has ever felt (modifier – adverb). He is unsure now whether (correlative conjunction) he is more afraid of the spider or (correlative conjunction) of his own immobilized paws. He stares at (preposition) his paws, which (relative pronoun) seem twice as (adverb) big as they (personal pronoun) normally are, and (coordinating conjunction) he stares at Ms. Spider (noun), who is quietly inching towards him (modifier – adjective). He screams. His voice sounds like it is coming from a mouse. He is either (correlative conjunction) going to collapse on the spot or (correlative conjunction) he is going to stand his ground and face the spider (adjective) clan. Spiders, which often come inside to escape the cold (modifier – adjective), usually do not care about cats. George knows (verb) this, but (coordinating conjunction) it doesn’t really matter. The world suddenly goes black and George is no longer afraid. Afraid or (coordinating conjunction) even aware of the spider moving slowing (adverb) up his front (adjective) paw, over his shoulder, and up onto the top of his head. When he (personal pronoun) wakes up, he begins to purr vigorously (adverb). He feels a light rubbing behind (preposition) his ear. Someone has come (verb) home and is petting him gently (adverb) to calm his nerves. Because (subordinating conjunction) he is such a lucky cat! He doesn’t know, in this moment (modifier – adverb), that the spiders have found a new, warm place to snuggle in out of the cold.

The following excerpts are not complete sentences.

  • Panic stronger than anything he has ever felt.
  • Afraid or even aware of the spider moving slowing up his front paw, over his shoulder, and up onto the top of his head.
  • Because he is such a lucky cat!

You can create complete sentences by rewording them to ensure that they contain both a subject and a verb and do not start with a subordinating conjunction (e.g., because).

… This panic is stronger than anything he has ever felt… He is not afraid or even aware of the spider… Someone is taking care of him because he is such a lucky cat!

 Return to Chapter 3.

 

Feedback on exercise 5: Sentence structure

The paragraphs below have been modified to reflect the principles for effective sentence structure. The first paragraph has been annotated to point out these principles.

ch3 - Feedback on exercise 5: Sentence structure

 

In the second paragraph, I have left it with you to identify the principles that have been applied.

To address this problem in our study, participants self-identified on a number of cultural identity factors. We found that the participants who identified more than one factor also ranked the importance of various competencies, from the list of knowledge, attitudes, and skills provided, differently than those who identified only one factor. To identify clusters of common competencies, we analyzed the data using a factor analysis. The data were skewed because neither the three male participants nor a female participant appears to have entered data about identify factors. These participants were eliminated from the data set because of their providing incomplete responses.

Return to Chapter 3.

 

Feedback on exercise 6: Sentence structure

The correct options are highlighted below to indicate either appropriate relationship to the main clause or parallelism in construction.

I am very concerned about grammar since / because it comes up often / professors observe it often in grading papers and students comment on it in course evaluations.

The most critical element of good writing, that / which I will tackle in a later lesson, is proofreading. Notice that you need to add commas around the subordinate clause in this case.

Proofreading is a skill that / which few people master.

While / Although I am not an expert in this area, I do have a few years of practice with my own writing.

While / Whereas I was writing this e-book, I was also working / also worked on several papers from my own research.

There are a number of tips for proofreading: (a) set the paper aside for a while, (b) reading / read it aloud, and (c) ask / asking a peer to edit it.

You may find you need to plan ahead, since / because additional time is required, to either implement either the first tip or last / the last one.

I find that some students have trouble planning enough time and a final edit becomes unlikely / they are unlikely to complete a final edit.

They lose marks not only on APA formatting but also on basic spelling and grammar.

While / Since writing this e-book, I have been careful to take a break between revisions, to re-read each lesson carefully, and have invited / to invite colleagues to review them.

Return to Chapter 3 – Exercise 6.

 

Feedback on exercise 7: To hyphenate or not to hyphenate?

The correct hyphenation is provided below in bold. Please refer to the APA Manual guidelines if you are unsure of any of the examples. Try to identify the basic principle that is being followed rather than looking for an exact matching example.

Exercise 7 activities are designed to provide you with practice using hyphens.

If you carefully follow the stress-reducing APA rules, you will likely increase your grade point average.

These rules reflect generally accepted practices gathered here and there over many years.

Hit-and-miss application of the rules may result in a poorly written paper.

Applying the rules carefully case by case will likely result in a higher quality paper.

While you may prefer to write ad lib, the end result of ad-lib practices is often disappointment.

Hyphenation is a bit tricky because of the many do-and-don’t principles involved.

Anxious students may not respond well to anal-retentive instructors, who belong to a rules-oriented subculture.

Most of the time, however, what appears as ultravigilant to students reflects a macrolevel perspective on what is required for professional-focused writing.

Pro-APA instructors are not necessarily pro-micromanagement.

Principle-focused feedback is different from grading that is overzealous.

Self-aware writers recognize that reflective practice principles are the foundation of all learning.

As they learn more about the principles of effective writing, they often re-evaluate their earlier formed perspectives and rework and re-form their views.

Most effective writers find that the key to success is to focus on superordinate principles rather than memorize case- or context-specific examples.

Return to Chapter 3.

 

Feedback on exercise 8: Punctuation

Appropriate punctuation has been inserted into the paragraphs below. Please ensure you understand the principles that influenced these choices.

Stating things as clearly as you can is one of the fundamentals of effective writing, noted in many writing resources. When you begin your graduate training, you may feel tempted to attest to your “academic prowess” by using long-winded sentences, adding in too many non-essential phrases or clauses, or stringing independent clauses together. You will be better able to resist these temptations by focusing on basic rules of grammar, including appropriate punctuation. There is one general rule of thumb: Keep it simple. A second rule of thumb is to sacrifice creativity for specificity. Various types of writing fall at different points on the creativity-specificity continuum. Scientific writing – whether you like it or not – falls at the specificity end. Most things can be stated in simple, clear, and concise ways; they can also be presented metaphorically or with words designed to entertain rather than to provide clarity.

The purpose of scientific writing, including graduate student papers, is to synthesize, analyze, and clearly articulate professional knowledge. This is very different from writing an award-winning novel. (An Internet search for resources on creative writing will bear this out.) The American Psychological Association (APA) provides guidance on scientific writing in psychology through the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. There are three principles that form a foundation for scientific writing: (a) Focus on being clear, concise, and specific; (b) Attend to the meaning of each sentence; and (c) Select specific structural and grammatical devices to enhance that meaning. You may want to pay particular attention to Chapter 2, “Writing Clearly and Concisely” and Chapter 3, “The Mechanics of Style.” A dash, used selectively and precisely, adds meaning; however, a dash, thrown in willy-nilly, simply breaks up the flow. Your instructor or course TA will provide as much writing support as possible; however, your success is really up to you.

Return to Chapter 3.

 

Feedback on exercise 9: Word structure

The errors have been corrected in the following text.

Jerry and Strong (2012) conducted an experiment with graduate students from the Faculty of Health Disciplines to assess the National Association of Health Research (NAHR) ethical decision-making model. [Notice that the EDMM abbreviation has been deleted – if it was to be a repeated term through the paper, you might justify leaving it in, but it is not a commonly recognized abbreviation.] Students from the counselling and health studies centres were divided into two groups: control and experimental. The experimental group was given 30 minutes to explore the NAHR model. Both groups were then asked to review a critical incident scenario and respond to a series of Likert scale items. The scale ranged from 1 (irrelevant) to 5 (highly relevant). Five factors related to decision-making emerged; only Factor 4 (Self-Reflection) showed no significant differences between groups. In a second article, “Testing Ethical Decision-Making Processes,” Jerry and Strong (2015) tested the same two groups with an awareness of self inventory and coined the term self-in-ethics to explain the differences between the control group and the experimental group. [Notice that the CG and EG abbreviations are not used because (a) they were not introduced earlier and (b) their use reduces clarity of meaning.] (See Table 4 for a summary of the results of these two experiments.) A cluster of items was identified as making up this factor. A priori exposure of students in health studies to the ethical decision-making model did not affect the Self-in-Ethics factor (i.e., this factor remained consistent across the control group and experimental group). [“i.e.,” indicates that the clause further explains the previous statement; “e.g.” is reserved for providing an example. Also note the punctuation error.]

 Return to Chapter 3.

 

Chapter 4 exercise feedback

Exercise 1 feedback: Citations

Reference1

Citation

Achenbach, K., & Arthur, N. (2015). Experiential learning: Bridging theory to practice in cultural competence. Teaching and Learning, 17, 39-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001100285003 First citation (Achenbach & Arthur, 2015)Subsequent citations same
American Association of Nurses. (2015). Guidelines for working with neurotrauma. Retrieved from http://www.aann.org/pubs/content/neuroguidelines.html First citation (American Association of Nurses [AAN], 2015)Subsequent citations (AAN, 2015) – this is a common abbreviation
Paul, R. (2014, September 26). Where do I go with APA? [Msg 45]. Retrieved from http://groups.yahoo.com/ group/APAstruggles/message/45 First citation (Paul, 2014)Subsequent citations same
Nesbit, R. J., Jr. (2011). A conceptual model for working with dysfunctional families. Journal of Marriage and Family Therapy, 25(4), 12-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.37.1 First citation (Nesbit, 2011)Subsequent citations same
Egale Canada. (2013, October 21). Make your voice heard in the struggle against hatred! Retrieved from http://www.egale.ca/index.asp?lang= E&menu =38&item=157 First citation (Egale Canada, 2013)Subsequent citations same
Arthur, N. (2010, July). Students’ perceptions of meaningful learning experiences in developing relationship-centred caring. Paper presented at the Interamerican Congress of Nursing Education, Sao Paulo, Brazil. First citation (Arthur, 2010)Subsequent citations same
Alden, L., Mothersill, K., Stefy, R., McIlwraith, R., Stenfberg, R., McMullen, L., et al. (2012). Priorities for professional training in the 21st century. Canadian Nurse Practitioner, 37, 223-228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-678.2002.tb1299.x First citation (Alden et al., 2012)Subsequent citations same
Tools for navigating APA. (2009). In S. Collins & D. McBride (Eds.), Surviving APA formatting (pp. 101-123). Calgary, AB: UCan Publish. First citation (“Tools for Navigating,” 2009)Subsequent citations same

Hanson, R. W. (2014). Developing theoretical models through group consensus. Journal of Theoretical Analysis, 25, 45-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/sgd0011327

Hanson, Z. R. (2015). Working with immigrant and refugee families. Inter-cultural Issues in Health Care, 45, 465-496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1556327805.2010.481961

First citation (R. W. Hanson, 2014) and (Z. R. Hanson, 2015)Subsequent citations same
Canadian Race Relations Foundation. (n.d.). Facts about acknowledging and defining racism. Toronto, ON: Author. First citation (Canadian Race Relations Foundation [CRRF], n.d.)Subsequent citations (CRRF, n.d.)
Arthur, N., & Collins, S. (Eds.). (2016). Culture-infused counselling: Fostering Socially Just Change Processes. Calgary, AB: Counselling Concepts. First citation (Arthur & Collins, 2016)Subsequent citations same
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Cautionary statement for forensic use of DSM-5. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.744053 First citation (American Psychiatric Association1, 2013)Subsequent citations same
Collins, S., Arthur, N., & Wong-Wylie (2016). Enhancing reflective practice in health care practice through cultural auditing. Manuscript submitted for publication. First citation (Collins, Arthur, & Wong-Wylie, 2016)Subsequent citations (Collins et al., 2016)
Canadian Task Force on Mental Health Issues Affecting Refugees from War Zones. (2016). After the door has been opened: Mental health issues affecting Syrian and Iraqi refugees in Canada. Ottawa, ON: Multiculturalism and Citizenship Canada. First citation (Canadian Task Force on Mental Health Issues Affecting Refugees [CTF], 2016)Subsequent citations (CTF, 2016)
Porter, J. M., & Francis, L. (2013). Building community in Canada’s northland (S. Wiley, Ed.). Toronto, ON: Brooks Books. First citation (Porter & Francis, 2013)Subsequent citations same
Strong, A., Branfort, T., & Spath, L. (in press). There is nowhere to go but up: Hope for healing. Journal of Change Processes, 45, 555-565. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14754835.2014.92343754.x First citation (Strong, Branfort, & Spath, in press)Subsequent citations (Strong et al., in press)
Where have all the theorists gone? (2014, July). Thinking Critically Monthly, 3, 2-3. Retrieved from http://www.thinkingcritically.org/journal.html First citation (“Where have all,” 2014)Subsequent citations same
Alverez, A. N., & Miville, M. L. (2013). Walking a tightrope: Strategies for teaching undergraduate cultural competence courses. In D. B. Pope-Davis, H. L. K. Coleman, W. M. Lui, & R. L. Toporek (Eds.), Handbook of cultural compe­tence in mental health care (pp. 528-545). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. First citation (Alverez & Miville, 2013)Subsequent citations same
Payne, K. (2016, January). There is a way out: Building collaboration for international stability. Journal of International Relations, 25-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/tep000001170 First citation (Payne, 2016)Subsequent citations same
The dictionary of underused words. (2015). Lethbridge, AB: Wordsmith. First citation (The Dictionary, 2015)Subsequent citations same

Pedersen, P. (2011a). Counseling international students. The Counseling Psychologist, 19, 10-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.156-668.2010.tb01.x

Pedersen, P. (2011b). Multiculturalism as a generic approach to counseling. Journal of Counseling & Development, 70, 6-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6678.2007.tb009.x

First citation (Pedersen, 2011a, 2011b)Subsequent citations same
Anonymous. (2015). What’s in a name anyway? Retrieved from http://www.criticalsocialwork.com/ CSW_V2_N2_WILL.pdf First citation (Anonymous, 1995)Subsequent citations same
Collison, B. B., Osbourne, J. L., Gray, L. A., House, R. M., Firth, J., & Lou, M. (2008). Preparing health services workers for social action. In C. C. Lee & G. R. Walz (Eds.), Social action: A mandate for health care (pp. 263- 277). Alexandria, VA: American Association for Community-Based Medicine. First citation (Collison et al., 2008)Subsequent citations same

Simpson, L., Paget, S., & Ellephson, R. (2013). Dreaming of an outcome. Evaluation, 34, 34-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-tb00440.x

Simpson, L., Rogers, R., & Fife, D. (2003). Thinking differently about building theory. Theoretical Analysis, 56(4), 23-35. Retrieved from http://www.criticalpublications.ca/journals/theo_anal.html

First citations (Simpson, Paget, & Ellephson, 2013; Simpson, Rogers, & Fife, 2013)Subsequent citations (Simpson, Paget et al., 2013; Simpson, Rogers et al., 2013)

1 The American Psychiatric Association is not abbreviated because it would be easily confused with the APA, cited throughout this e-book.

Return to Chapter 4.

 

Exercise 2 feedback: Quotations

Several writers have identified the source of ethnocentric thinking as a function of moral development (Green, 2013; Marks & Spencer, 2011; Stevens, 2016). One of the most interesting arguments is provided by Green: “the belief that my own perspective is more right than that of others is ironically evidence that my morale [sic] evolution is impaired (2013, p.35). This argument is based on the supposition that higher order moral functioning is evidenced by an ability to hold multiple perspectives simultaneously (Green, 2013; Stevens, 2016). However,

The difficulty with this reasoning arises when one recognizing that the majority of humanity has difficulty with complex cognitive processing of multiple “truths” simultaneously. In fact, most people are quite comfortable with the belief that their way is the only way to view many complex social, economic, and cultural issues (Stevens, 2016, p. 65).

In summary, ethnocentric thinking is hard to identify from the inside out, without specific practices to support critical reflection and self-awareness.

Errors:

  1. Capitalization of the first letter of a quote should fit with the sentence structure. In this case, following a colon, the “t” should be capitalized: The belief that my own….
  2. The word morale is misspelled and could lead to confusion in the reader, so it should be noted with [sic].
  3. The date should be listed with the author – provided by Green (2003): . . .
  4. There should be a space before the page number – (p. 35).
  5. The quotation marks should appear before the page reference – . . . is impaired (p. 35).
  6. The lead-in to a long quote should introduce the quote – However, Stevens (2006) made the following observation.
  7. The author and date should be included in this lead in – However, Stevens (2006) made the following observation:
  8. There should be no quotation marks around long quotes.
  9. The punctuation should be at the end of the long quote, not after the page reference – . . . cultural issues. (p. 65)
  10. The last sentence provides a synthesis of the previous material. It should not be indented because it belongs in the same paragraph.

Return to Chapter 4.

 

Exercise 3 feedback: Integrating multiple and repeated sources

The errors in the paragraphs below are noted in bold.

Nurse practitioners are fulfilling an important gap in the Canadian health care system (George & Remington, 2015, Boon, 2011, Willson, Williams, & Ward, 2013). This gap has evolved over time as the roles of nurses have become more narrow (Boon; George & Remington), their responsibilities more restricted (Willson, Williams, & Ward, 2013), and the overall demands on the health care systems heavier (Willson et al.). Boon, 2011, argued that nurse practitioners are well poised to fill this emerging service gap; in fact, they have been increasingly doing so over the past decade (Boon, 2011: George and Remington, 2015). My survey of the literature suggests that Boon is correct; however, changing how the rest of the medical system views nursing practice remains a challenge (Nyles, Andrews, and Devogne, 2010; Stewart, 2013; Stewart, 2015).

Nyles, et al. (2010) pointed to resistance on the part of physicians to give up control over certain procedures, even though these are well within the training and expertise of nurse practitioners. Stewart (2015) noted the expanded scope of practice that includes diagnosis and prescription of medications. According to Stewart, as well as Nyles and colleagues, those patients with access to primary health care through a nurse practitioner showed higher rates of both compliance and satisfaction with health interventions. Patients seem less resistant to change than physicians (Nyles et al.; Stewart, 2013; Robertson, Moore, and Jeffrey, 2014). Robertson & colleagues asserted that the tide is turning as a critical mass of nurse practitioners join the health care team (also check out Anderson, 2013 or Johnson, 2016).

I have rewritten the paragraphs below to correct these errors. If you are unsure about any of the edits, please review the Citing multiple sources and Sources repeated in the same paragraph sections of Chapter 4.

Nurse practitioners are fulfilling an important gap in the Canadian health care system (Boon, 2011; George & Remington, 2015; Willson, Williams, & Ward, 2013). This gap has evolved over time as the roles of nurses have become more narrow (Boon, 2011; George & Remington, 2015), their responsibilities more restricted (Willson et al., 2013), and the overall demands on the health care systems heavier (Carver, 2011; Willson et al., 2013). Boon (2011) argued that nurse practitioners are well poised to fill this emerging service gap; in fact, they have been increasingly doing so over the past decade (Boon, 2011; George & Remington, 2015). My survey of the literature suggests that Boon is correct; however, changing how the rest of the medical system views nursing practice remains a challenge (Nyles et al., 2010; Stewart, 2013, 2015).

Nyles et al. (2010) pointed to resistance on the part of physicians to give up control over certain procedures, even though these are well within the training and expertise of nurse practitioners. Stewart (2015) noted the expanded scope of practice that includes diagnosis and prescription of medications. According to Stewart (2015), as well as Nyles and colleagues, those patients with access to primary health care through a nurse practitioner showed higher rates of both compliance and satisfaction with health interventions. Patients seem less resistant to change than physicians (Nyles et al., 2010; Robertson, Moore, & Jeffrey, 2014; Stewart, 2013). Robertson and colleagues (2014) asserted that the tide is turning as a critical mass of nurse practitioners join the health care team (see also Anderson, 2013; Johnson, 2016).

Return to Chapter 4.

 

Exercise 4 feedback: Referencing periodicals

The answers to Exercise 4 are provided in the second column. Pay careful attention in comparing these to your own responses, noting punctuation changes and deleted information.

Link

Reference

  • The issue does not begin on page 1
  • There is another author: R. Rusino
Smith, D. C., Maher, M. F., & Rusino, R. (2015). Healthy death. Counseling & Values, 36, 42-48.
  • There is no author
  • A subtitle is added = views from the west
Healthy death: Views from the West. (2015). Counseling & Values, 36(1), 42-48.
  • This is a letter to the editor
  • Author = Bereavement Office, Calgary Health Services
Calgary Health Services, Bereavement Office. (2015). Healthy death [Letter to the editor]. Counseling & Values, 36(1), 42-48.
  • Periodical = Chicago Times newspaper
  • Published on January 24, Section A, pages 3 and 9
Smith, D. C., & Maher, M. F. (2015, January 24). Healthy death. Chicago Times, p. A3, A9.
  • Periodical = Weekly Psychology Magazine
  • Published on February 7
Smith, D. C., & Maher, M. F. (2015, February 7). Healthy death. Weekly Psychology Magazine, 36, 42-48.
  • Periodical = Newsletter
  • Published monthly = December
Smith, D. C., & Maher, M. F. (2015, December). Healthy death. Counseling & Values, 36, 42-48.
  • No volume number (or issue number)
  • Journal published in July
Smith, D. C., & Maher, M. F. (2015, July). Healthy death. Counseling & Values, 42-48.
  • The journal lists volume = XXI and Issue = iv
  • This is a book review: Book = The Path to Death.
Smith, D. C., & Maher, M. F. (2015). Healthy death [Review of the book The path to death]. Counseling & Values, 21(4), 42-48.
  • There is no author
  • Newsletter = Edmonton Hospital News
  • Address = Hospital Centre, 45 Jasper Ave. Edmonton, AB, T4R 8T9
Healthy death. (2015). Edmonton Hospital News, 42-48. (Available from the Hospital Centre, 45 Jasper Ave., Edmonton, AB, T4R 8T9).
  • Smith and Maher = editors
  • Whole special issue is referenced
Smith, D. C., & Maher, M. F. (Eds.). (2015). Healthy death [Special Issue]. Counseling & Values, 36(1).
  • DOI = 10.1177/0011000009338495
Smith, D. C., & Maher, M. F. (2015). Healthy death. Counseling & Values, 36(1), 42-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011000009338495
  • Library database article with no DOI
  • Publisher URL = http://www.cppub.org/cvjournal.html
Smith, D. C., & Maher, M. F. (2015). Healthy death. Counseling & Values, 36(1), 42-48. Retrieved from http://www.cppub.org/cvjournal.html

Return to Chapter 4.

 

Exercise 5 feedback: Referencing books

Criteria

New Reference

  • Authors are added: J. Smith, R. Hayes, M. Wiley, Z. Spath, W. Tishel
Sanderson, C. A., Smith, J., Hayes, R., Wiley, M., Spath, Z., & Tishel, W. (2014). Health psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
  • Publisher = University of British Columbia Press
  • Book accepted for publication but not yet published
Sanderson, C. A. (in press). Health psychology. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
  • Author = New Jersey Social Services
  • Publisher = New Jersey Social Services
New Jersey Social Services. (2014). Health psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Author.
  • Author = The Centre for Innovative Justice
  • Report was published on July 21
  • Report number = SZTN 3902
The Centre for Innovative Justice. (2014). Health psychology (Report No. SZTN 3902). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
  • Author = Division of Applied Psychology, University of Calgary
  • There is no date.
University of Calgary, Division of Applied Psychology. (n.d.). Health psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
  • Authors are added: J. Smith, R. Hayes, M. Wiley, Z. Spath, W. Tishel, M. Mishra, T. Justin
  • Publisher = Way Out Inc.
Sanderson, C. A., Smith, J., Hayes, R., Wiley, M., Spath, Z., Tishel, W., … Justin, T. (2014). Health psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Way Out.
  • Publisher = Back Corner Office, Ontario Ministry of Health
  • Location = Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Sanderson, C. A. (2014). Health psychology. Toronto, ON: Ontario Ministry of Health, Back Corner Office.
  • Sanderson is listed as editor, not author
  • Second editor = R. Wilson
  • This the second edition
Sanderson, C. A., & Wilson, R. (Eds.). (2014). Health psychology (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
  • There is no author
  • This is a manual
Health psychology [Manual]. (2014). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
  • DOI = 10.1177/0011000003260065
  • You read a print version of the book
Sanderson, C. A. (2014). Health psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011000003260065
  • You downloaded the book onto your Kindle
  • No DOI
  • Publisher URL = www.healthbooks.ca
Sanderson, C. A. (2014). Health psychology [E-reader version]. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Retrieved from http://www.healthbooks.ca
  • The report has no report number
  • It is available through ERIC at document number: KSM234
Sanderson, C. A. (2014). Health psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. (Eric Document Reproduction Service No. KSM234)

Return to Chapter 4.

 

Exercise 6 feedback: Referencing book chapters

Criteria

New Reference

  • Authors are added: J. Smith, R. Hayes
  • A subtitle is added = health benefits of an ancient buddhist practice
Kabat-Zinn, J., Smith, J., & Hayes, R. (2013). Mindfulness meditation: Health benefits of an ancient Buddhist practice. In D. Goleman & J. Gurin (Eds.), Mind-body medicine (pp. 259-275). Yonkers, NY: Consumer Reports Books.
  • No author is provided for the chapter

 

Mindfulness meditation. (2013). In D. Goleman & J. Gurin (Eds.), Mind-body medicine (pp. 259-275). Yonkers, NY: Consumer Reports Books.
  • This is the second edition of the book
  • The author = Life management strategies group
Life Management Strategies Group. (2013). Mindfulness meditation. In D. Goleman & J. Gurin (Eds.), Mind-body medicine (2nd ed., pp. 259-275). Yonkers, NY: Consumer Reports Books.
  • Kabat-Zinn uses the suffix Junior
  • Second author Kabat-Zinn, K.
Kabat-Zinn, J., Jr., & Kabat-Zinn, K. (2013). Mindfulness meditation. In D. Goleman (Ed.), Mind-body medicine (pp. 259-275). Yonkers, NY: Consumer Reports Books.
  • There are three locations listed for Consumer Report Books: Washington, DC; Toronto, ON, and Athabasca, AB (in that order)
Kabat-Zinn, J. (2013). Mindfulness meditation. In D. Goleman & J. Gurin (Eds.), Mind-body medicine (pp. 259-275). Washington, DC: Consumer Reports Books.
  • The book was published in New York city
  • DOI = 10.1186/1471-2458-6-104
  • There is an additional editor = R. Gomery
Kabat-Zinn, J. (2013). Mindfulness meditation. In D. Goleman, J. Gurin, & R. Gomery (Eds.), Mind-body medicine (pp. 259-275). New York: Consumer Reports Books. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-6-104
  • The chapter is listed as authored anonymously
  • There are no editors for the book
  • The book is published in San Jose, Costa Rica
Anonymous. (2013). Mindfulness meditation. In Mind-body medicine (pp. 259-275). San Jose, Costa Rica: Consumer Reports Books.
  • The third volume of the book is used, entitled: Strategies for change
  • Location = Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Kabat-Zinn, J. (2013). Mindfulness meditation. In D. Goleman & J. Gurin (Eds.), Mind-body medicine: Strategies for Change (Vol. 3, pp. 259-275). Ottawa, ON: Consumer Reports Books.
  • The book is currently in production
Kabat-Zinn, J. (in press). Mindfulness meditation. In D. Goleman & J. Gurin (Eds.), Mind-body medicine. Yonkers, NY: Consumer Reports Books.
  • The publisher URL = www.hotbooks.com.
  • You purchased the book.
Kabat-Zinn, J. (2013). Mindfulness meditation. In D. Goleman & J. Gurin (Eds.), Mind-body medicine. Yonkers, NY: Consumer Reports Books. Available from http://www.hotbooks.com
  • The book was published in 1996
  • The chapter is available only as an archive in this database
  • Accession No. 89327498
Kabat-Zinn, J. (1996). Mindfulness meditation. In D. Goleman & J. Gurin (Eds.), Mind-body medicine. Yonkers, NY: Consumer Reports Books. Retrieved from ERIC database. (Accession No. 89327498)

Return to Chapter 4.

 

Exercise 7 feedback: Referencing Internet periodicals and other documents

Link

Reference

 Principles

https://www.apa.org/about/gr/issues/lgbt/marriage-equality.pdf American Psychological Association, Public Interest Government Relations Office. (n.d.). Marriage equality and LGBT health. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/about/gr/issues/lgbt/marriage-equality.pdf
  • Organization as author (parent organization listed first).
  • Document located on the Internet.
  • No date.
http://cjcdonline.ca/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Career-Practitioners%CA%BC-Views-of.pdf Arthur, N., Collins, S., McMahon, M., & Marshall, C. (2009). Career practitioners’ views of social justice and barriers for practice. Canadian Journal of Career Development, 8(1), 22-31. Retrieved from http://cjcdonline.ca/ 
  • Open access online journal
  • User-friendly index of volumes
http://cde.athabascau.ca/online_book/  Anderson, T., & Elloumi, F. (Eds.). (2004). Theory and practice of online learning. Retrieved from http://cde.athabascau.ca/online_book/
  • Online book.
  • Editors instead of authors.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1502824

Assume you can access the full article.

  • additional descriptor = review article
  • DOI available
  • No issue number required
http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/niqab-ruling-federal-court-government-challenge-citizenship-ceremonies-1.3229206 Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. (2015, September 16). Niqab ban at citizenship ceremonies unlawful, as Ottawa loses appeal. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/niqab-ruling-federal-court-government-challenge-citizenship-ceremonies-1.3229206 
  • Online news article.
  • Direct link necessary to find it on the CBC website.
http://www.uoguelph.ca/tss/id/currdev/Tri-university%20graduate%20attributes.pdf Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council and the Social Sciences, & Humanities Research Council. (2007). Tri-agency statement of principles on key professional skills for researchers. Retrieved from http://www.uoguelph.ca/tss/id/currdev/Tri-university%20graduate%20attributes.pdf
  • Organization(s) as author(s), no sub-group noted.
  • Retrieved from Internet Web site.
http://www.wellesleyinstitute.com/publications/first-peoples-second-class-treatment/ Allan, B. & Smylie, J. (2015). First Peoples, second class treatment: The role of racism in the health and well-being of Indigenous peoples in Canada. Retrieved from Wellesley Institute website: http://www.wellesleyinstitute.com/publications/first-peoples-second-class-treatment/
  • Report from private organization.
  • No report number.
  • Organization website listed.
https://ww1.cpa-apc.org/Publications/Archives/CJP/2006/august/ – Suicide Cases in New Brunswick article Séguin, M., Lesage, A., Chawky, N., Guy, A., Daigle, F., Girard, G., & Turecki, G. (2006, June). Suicide cases in New Brunswick from April 2002 to May 2003: The importance of better recognizing substance and mood disorder comorbidity. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 51, 581–586. Retrieved from http://publications.cpa-apc.org/browse/sections/0
  • Issue number not provided, so month included.
  • No DOI
  • Publisher URL required (note this is different than the link provided)

Note: It is sometimes difficult to discern certain information from the Internet (for example, whether the host site is related to the author/publisher of the article). As a general rule of thumb, explore the site to gather as much information as you can and then go with the simplest and most common format that fits the information you have found.

Return to Chapter 4.

 

Chapter 5 exercise feedback

Exercise 1 feedback: Creating and formatting headings

Below you will find a potential two level heading structure for the first thesis statement: Developing solid writing skills early on will facilitate success in both graduate education and professional roles.

Writing for Success (my title – no bold)

What Does Great Professional Writing Look Like? 

Respect for the Writing of Others

Great Thinking – Great Writing 

The Forest and the Trees 

Why Should I Invest in Mastering Professional Writing?

Professional Writing and Effective Communication

Communication in Health Practitioner Roles

Communication and Career Success

Next, I have created a three-level heading structure for the second thesis statement: The emphasis on writing skills in graduate programs distracts from the central mandate of developing applied professional competencies.

Give My Brain a Break Already! (my title)

Prioritizing Discipline-Specific Learning

Focusing on the Needs of Clients

     Verbal versus written communication.

     Applied practice skills.

Making Choices about Energy Investment

     Work-school-life balance.

     Targeted focus.

Aiming for Good Enough

The Nature of Applied Practice Competencies

Knowledge Acquisition Versus Knowledge Dissemination

Hands On Nature of the Health Disciplines

     It’s what we do that matters.

     Critical thinking not masterful writing.

     Doing what we do best.

Notice that for either of these examples, you have a hint in the headings about my argument, but you would need the key points to really understand how I am supporting the thesis statement.

Return to Chapter 5.

 

Exercise 5 feedback: Ordering reference list entries

The entries below have been reordered correctly. I have bolded portions of the items as clues to the principles applied.

The Advanced Learning Environment. (n.d.). Home page. Retrieved from http://www.advancedlearningenvironment.org/lms/portal/desktopdefault.aspx

Allison, K., Crawford, I., Echemendia, R., Robinson, L., & Knepp, D. (2014). Human diversity and professional competence: Training in clinical and counseling psychology revisited. American Psychologist, 49(9), 792-796. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.49.9.792

Allison, K., Echemendia, R., Crawford, I., & Robinson, W. (2016). Predicting cultural competence: Implications for practice and training. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 27(4), 386-393. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2005.068007

Amber, R. (in press-a). Tribal customs health implications. Journal of International Cultural Experiences.

Amber, R. (in press-b). Variations on tribal customs in Southeast Asia. Journal of International Cultural Experiences.

Amundson, N. (2016). Active engagement: Enhancing the career counselling process. Richmond, BC: Ergon Communications.

Amundson, N., Westwood, M., & Prefontaine, R. (2015). Cultural bridging and employment counselling with clients from different cul­tural backgrounds. Canadian Journal of Counseling & Psychotherapy, 29(3), 206-213. Retrieved from http://cjc-rcc.ucalgary.ca/cjc/

Ancis, J. R. (2010, Spring). Cultural competency training at a distance: Challenges and strategies. Journal of Counseling and Development, 76, 134-142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15538605.2013.755444

Ancis, J. R. (2013). Teaching multicultural competencies using the Internet and other technologies. In D. B. Pope-Davis, H. L. K. Coleman, W. M. Liu, & R. Toporek (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural competencies in counseling and psychol­ogy (pp. 575-587). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Arredondo, P., & Toporek, R. (2014), Multicultural competencies = ethical practice. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 26(1), 44-55.

Arredondo, P., Toporek, R., Brown, S. P., Jones, J., Locke, D., Sanchez, J., & Stadler, H. (1996). Operationalization of the multicultural counseling competencies. Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, 24(1), 42-78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011000003260065

Arthur, A., & Bradford, D. (2000, April). Focusing on the basics of counsellor education. Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the American Education and Research Association, New Orleans, LA.

Arthur, N. (2014a). Counsellor education for diversity: Where do we go from here? Canadian Journal of Counselling, 32(1), 88-103. Retrieved from http://cjc-rcc.ucalgary.ca/cjc/

Arthur, N. (2014b). Intergenerational conflict in career and life planning. NATCON Papers, 24, 95-104). Retrieved from http://www.natcon.org/natcon/papers/natcon_papers_1998_e9.pdf

Bowman, M. L. (2010). The diversity of diversity: Canadian-American differences and their implications for clinical training and APA accreditation. Canadian Psychology, 41(4), 230-243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0086871

Bowman, S. L., & King, K. D. (2013). Gender, feminism, and multicultural competencies. In D. B. Pope-Davis, H. L. K. Coleman, W. M. Lui, & R. L. Toporek (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural competencies in counseling and psychology (pp. 59-71). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Return to Chapter 5.

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